Operational data store (ODS)

What is an Operational data store (ODS)?

It is a database which has integrated data from different business or sources with different rules. The data cleansing process applied also. It gets data from the transactional database directly or through staging area.
It will have a limited period of history data, hardly 30 to 90 days of data.

Why does ODS is required?

It will be used for operational monitoring and processing, and for creating simple analysis reports. The performance of processing will be faster since it has only less volume of data compare to data-mart.

Difference between data warehouse and ODS:

Data mart or data warehouse
PeriodIt will have limited period of data (30 to 90 days)It stores history of data
PurposeOperational processingForecasting and decision-making
Query complexitySQL query complexity will be lessQuery complexity will be high
Stage in architectureIt will be built before data warehouseODS data will be moved into data warehouse

Operational data store vs OLTP (Online Transactional Processing):

PeriodIt will have limited period of data (30 to 90 days)It has only current data
PurposeOperational processingFor regular online transactions
DataIntegrated from different business linesOnly for specific business
NormalizationNormalized or de-normalizedNormalized to avoid data redundancy

Operational data store vs Staging database:

PeriodIt will have limited period of data (30 to 90 days)Based on type of load it stores incremental data or full volume of data
PurposeOperational processingTemporary data storage and for doing data cleansing and other calculations
DataIntegrated from different business linesBased on business need, normally the each business line would have dedicated staging