HP ALM Interview Questions and Answers

1) What is ALM?

HP ALM (Application Life Cycle Management) is a test management tool under a proprietary license.
We can access ALM/ Quality Center over the internet or intranet, via a Web browser. It involves interrelated steps such as defining release, developing requirement, designing and execution of tests, monitoring and reporting defects. QC 8.0 is the starting version and currently QC or ALM 12.0 is the latest version.

2) What are the benefits of using ALM / Quality Center?

•    Quality center is one of the best test management tools in the market. It has a lot of features and can be accessed through an IE browser. 
•    It has a different set of modules and we can create releases, requirement and its traceability, test plan, test lab, logging defects in defect modules. 
•    Different groups can be created like the BA’s, Developers and testers and it acts as a centralized point of control. 
•    Defect assignment can be easily done in QC and in turn QC itself can generate emails to intimate the responsible person assigned to a particular activity.
•    QC provides various customization filters which can be used for creating reports and graphs. 
•    QC can be integrated with QTP and HP Load Runner and HP Performance Center
•    QC supports virtual environments like Citrix XenApp 6.0, VMware ESX 5.0 and ESXi 5.0 (SP3).

3) What are the modules of Quality Center?

The Quality Center modules are:
•    Management Module: This module includes following sub modules:
•    Release module: Enable us to define release and cycles for the application management process.
•    Libraries module: Enables us to define libraries to track changes in project, reuse entities in project, or share entities across multiple projects.
•    Requirement Module: Helps us to manage requirements. This includes defining what we are testing, defining requirement topics and items, also analyzing requirements.
•    Test Plan: Enable us to develop and manage test in a hierarchical tree-structure. Tests can be linked to requirement and defects.
•    Test Resources: Enables us to manage test resources in a hierarchical tree structure. Tests resources can be associated with tests.
•    Test lab: Enables us to run tests and analyze the results.
•    Defect Module: Helps us to report defects, determine, repair priorities and reopen defects.
•    Dashboard: Helps to create graphs, reports and excel reports.

4) What is the difference between TestDirector and Quality Center?

Quality Center is upgraded version of TestDirector built by the same vendor Mercury (Now acquired by HP).
TestDierector Version 8.2 onwards is known as Quality Center. Quality Center is has enhanced Security/Test management /Defect management features when compared to TestDierector.

5) What is meant by test lab in Quality Center?

Test lab is a part of Quality Centre where we can execute our test on different cycles creating test tree for each one of them. We need to add test to these test trees from the tests, which are placed under test plan in the project. Internally Quality Centre will refer to this test while running then in the test lab.

6) What is meant by Instance?

A Test Case imported from Test Plan module to Test Lab module is called an Instance of that test case. It is possible to have multiple instances of the same Test Case in the Test Lab Module.

7) What are the types of graphs and reports in QC?

•    Progress graphs are available for all tables.
•    Summary graphs are available for all tables.
•    Test lab has additional graphs
  -cross test set progress
  -cross test set summary
•    Defects table also has Age graphs
•    standard reports
•    Document generator
•    snapshots
•    full reports

8) What data sources (databases) does QC use to store and manage data?

A QC project can be stored and managed using the following data sources.
•    Microsoft SQL
•    Oracle
Note: Default database is Microsoft SQL.

9) What is the Purpose of Creating Child Requirement in TD /QC?

By Creating Child requirements to the main requirement you can evaluate the sub requirements related to the main requirements.
You can link test sets and defects to the sub-requirements.  This helps in 100% test coverage and its analysis.

10) What is a Table in QC project?

A table in QC project stores records of information about your test plan. It is part of a database.

11) How many built-in tables does QC have? What are they?

There are 6 tables accessible to the user via QC's Customize Project interface.
They are as follows:
•    Test Table
•    Test Step Table
•    Run Table
•    Test Set Table
•    Defect Table
•    Requirement Table

12) What is a Test Plan Tree?

The Test Plan tree is a branching structure that allows you to organize
Your entire test plan visually.

13) What are the benefits of a test plan tree?

•    Visually organize your tests
•    Use different criteria for groups of tests
            -object controls
            -business tasks
•    Insert Placeholders where needed
•    Testing can start before all tests are created while keeping the plan orderly.

14) Why limit access to a Quality Center project?

You can enhance project security by assigning access privileges to all users.

15) What are Test Requirements?

Test Requirements refer to objectives or conditions that must be satisfied during testing

16) What are the categories of test requirements?

•    Business Requirements: High-Level objectives of the customer requesting the product
•    User requirements: Describe tasks the user must be able to accomplish with the product. Tasks captured in use cases or scenario descriptions.                   
•    Functional requirements: documented in a software requirements specification (SRS). Define the application's software functionality to enable users to accomplish their tasks.

17) How do you check which tests are linked to a specific requirement?

Coverage View is used to check which tests are linked to a specific requirement.
Use this view to find untested requirements.

18) What does document view show?

Document view displays columns for all requirements.

19) How do you customize requirements tree?

Open the "select columns" dialog to customize the requirements tree

20) What are Progress Graphs?

Progress Graphs display specified information over a period of time.
Each testing phase has a progress graph
•    Requirements Phase: Data grouped by fields in the REQUIREMENT table.
•    Planning Phase: Data from TEST table
•    Execution Phase: Data from RUN table
•    Defects Phase: Data from DEFECT table

21) What are Summary Graphs?

Summary graphs show the accumulated value of specified data in the Quality Center project. Each testing phase has a summary graph. User may select 2 fields for grouping- graph for each field, grouped by field

22) Why to use a filter?

Filters allow you to restrict the scope of data displayed in the graph, report or grid according to criteria that you specify. When a filter is applied, only those records that meet the filter conditions are displayed. Filters are available for Graphs, Reports and Grids.

23) When would you generate project documents using the standard Reports feature and when would you use the Document Generator?

We use standard Reports,
•    To view quick reports,
•    To filter/sort and customize the fields,
•    And to save it to a Web page file (.html)
We use Document Generator
•    For high customization involving index, tables & attachments
•    To save and edit in MS Word format (.doc)
•    To choose between snapshot and Full report.

24) What icon indicates whether a test has steps?

A footprint next to the manual and automated icons indicates whether a test has steps.

25) How will you generate the defect ID in Quality Center?

The Defect ID is automatically generated after clicking Submit button.

26) What is a User-Defined field? How many can you create?

A User-Defined field is a column in a QC table activated by the user to hold project specific information. You can create unto 99 user-defined fields in a QC project

27) What are the benefits of User-defined fields?

•    Store project-specific information that may be inappropriate for built-in fields
•    More ways to filter and sort project information
•    More ways to customize graphs and reports.

28) What are the currently supported user defined field types?

•    Number
•    Date
•    String
•    User List
•    Lookup List

29) Where are the user-defined fields added?

The user-defined fields are added to the Test Plan tab under "Other Information"

31) How do you link requirements with a test?

We link requirements to a particular test using Requirements coverage tab.

32) What is an automated test?

An automated test is a recorded script of user actions that is played back on an application to verify correct functionality.

33) Can you use QC for automation?

Yes. QC integrates with UFT (Formerly QTP), which is a testing tool that enables you to create and playback automated tests.

34) What are the 2 ways of adding automated tests?

•    Save UFT test to a Quality Center project.
•    Convert a manual test to an automated one.

35) What is the importance of connecting a test case to test requirements?

•    To see if all the requirements are covered.
•    To map a test case associated with its requirements.

36) What types of database are used in QC?

When we create a QC project. We need to store and manage the data generated and collected by Quality Center. Each project is supported by a database that stores project information.
The following database application could be used to store and manage Quality Center information:
•    Oracle Standard/Enterprise Edition
•    Oracle
•    Microsoft SQL Server 2005 (SP2).

37) Mention what does Dashboard Analysis consist of?

The dashboard analysis consists of two views
•    Analysis View:  It consists of the analysis tree using which project managers/QA can arrange all of their analysis items like-graphs, excel reports and project reports
•    Dashboard View: It consists of the dashboard tree in which managers or testers arrange dashboard pages that can arrange multiple graphs that was formed in the analysis tree and manifest them in a single view

38) What is the main purpose to storing requirement in Quality Center?

You store requirements in Quality Center for following reasons
•    To ensure 100% coverage: You can create and track test plan / sets for the requirements stored in Quality Center to ensure all the requirements are tested.
•    Easy Change Management: If any requirement changes during course of test case creation, the underlying test case is automatically highlighted and Test Engineer can change the test case to suite the new requirement.
•    Ease of Tracking: Using Advanced Reporting & Graphs provided by QC, Managers can determine various metrics useful in project tracking and monitoring.

39) How to use Quality Center in real time project?

After completing the test cases, we do:
•    Export the test cases into Quality Center.
•    The test cases will be loaded in the test plan module.
•    When execution is started. We move the test cases from test plan tab to the test lab module
•    In test lab, we execute the test cases and put as pass or fail or incomplete. We generate the graph in the test lab for daily report and sent to the specific user.
•    If we got any defects and raise the defects in the defect module. When raising the defects, attach the defects with the screen shot.

40) How to map the requirements with test cases in Quality Center?

For mapping the requirement with test cases we do:
•    In requirements tab select coverage view
•    Select requirement by clicking on parent/child or grandchild
•    On right hand side (In coverage view window) another window will appear. It has two tabs:
-Tests coverage
•    Test coverage tab will be selected by default or you click on it.
•    Click on select tests button a new window will appear on right hand side and you will see a list of all tests. You cans elect any test case you want to map with your requirements.

41) What is a Scheduler?

The Scheduler is a QC feature that allows timed execution of automated tests. You can specify the date and time when a test will be run. This is useful for running large no. of tests unattended, such as overnight.

42) How do you open a Scheduler?

Go to-> Execution Flow tab. Right click a test to be scheduled and select "Test Run Schedule" from the pop-up menu.

43) Why we use QC to track defects?

•    Maintains a centralized database
•    Standardize defect reporting
•    Prevent duplicate defects
•    Attach supporting information easily
•    Analyze defect data using reports and graphs.

44) How can we add requirements to test cases in Quality Center?

Just you can use the option of add requirements.
Two kinds of requirements are available in TD.
•    Parent Requirement
•    Child requirements.

45) What is Business Component?

•    Quality Center provides Business Component for Business Process Testing (BPT).
•    Many Enterprise Applications are a) complex and b) require extensive test scripts/case.
•    A Test /Automation Engineer cannot handle both complexity of Application under Test as well as extensive test script/test case creation.
•    Using Business Component, Subject Matter Experts (who are experts on the Application underTest) can create tests in a script free environment without involving in the Nitty-gritty of test case/script designing. It helps increase test coverage and creates re-usable business components used for testing essential Business Processes.
•    Development of Test Script / Cases is done by Automation / Test Engineer.

46) What are the phases of Quality Center process?

•    Setting up the QC project
•    Requirements Management
•    Create Test Cases
•    Run Tests and Analyze Results
•    Report and Track Defects

47) What are the features of Quality Center?

•    Entirely browser based
•    Project customization now a separate module
•    Test requirements management
•    Execution Flow tab
•    "Drill Down" in graphs
•    save graph, report and grid settings for reuse
•    Attach screen snapshots to any object that accepts attachments
•    Web Defect Manager Functionality built into Defects tab.

48) What is the Purpose of Creating Child Requirement in TD /QC?
By Creating Child requirements to the main requirement you can evaluate the sub requirements related to the main requirements.You can link test sets and defects to the sub-requirements.  This helps in 100% test coverage and its analysis.

49) What is a Quality Center Project?

A QC project is a customizable repository for the testing effort. It contains tests, test sets, execution records, defect reports and other test documentation.

50) What are the predefined groups and permissions in HP ALM?

•    Developer
•    Project Manager
•    QA Tester
•    TD Admin
•    View

51) Explain the architecture of Hp-ALM the new version of Quality Center?

•    HP ALM client
•    ALM server/Application server
•    Database servers- Site administration schema, Lab project and Project schema

52) Mention what are the different editions for HP ALM?

The different edition of HP ALM includes,
•    HP ALM essentials: It is for the corporates that need the basic features for supporting their entire software life cycle
•    HP QC enterprise edition: This version is used by corporates more commonly who use ALM more testing purposes.  It also provides integration with UFT
•    HP ALM performance center edition: This license is best suitable for organizations who would like to use HP ALM to drive HP-Load runner scripts.  It helps the users to manage, maintain, execute, schedule and monitor performance tests.

53) Mention what is ALM workflow?

ALM workflow includes:

•    Release Specification
•    Requirement Specification
•    Test Planning
•    Test Execution
•    Defect Tracking

54) Explain why do we need management of release and cycles in ALM?

•    There are many releases for a specific product
•    Each release is segregated into a number of cycles
•    Each release has also have a pre-defined scope and milestone associated with it
•    There is a specific number of test cases and requirements associated with it
•    Upon executing tests, the defects are mapped and logged to the corresponding tests after which we can trace requirements and defects. Hence we need release and cycle Management

55) Mention what is Sprinter in HP-Alm?

Sprinter offers advanced functionality and tools to make manual testing more effective and efficiently.  It allows you to accomplish these tasks without disrupting your test flow.  With the help of sprinter, you can execute many of the repetitive and tedious tasks of manual testing automatically.  It includes many tools that can help you to detect and submit defects.

56) Mention what is sprinter-data injection?

•    Using sprinter you can enter test data into the application by matching column names with the field names with the application
•    We can insert multi-set of data directly into the application with respective matching fields at one go
•    Choose the row that you want to insert and tap on the inject icon which directly inject the data into the corresponding fields

57) Mention how sprinter tools are helpful?

Sprinter tools are helpful in many ways like
•    Smart Defect
•    New Defect
•    Add Defect Reminder

58) Mention what is the advantage of Quality Center?

•    Quality Center is referred as a complete test management tool
•    It is a web-based tool and backs up high level of communication among various stake-holders (Developers, Business Analyst, Testers and so on) driving a more efficient and effective global application-testing process
•    With Quality Center automation tools like UFT and LoadRunner it can be integrated.  For analysis and tracking for test processes, it can also create reports and graphs.