Manual Testing Interview Questions (100)

Ques.1. What is software testing?
Ans. Software testing is evaluating a system to check if it satisfies the business requirement. It measures the overall quality of the system in terms of attributes like correctness, completeness, usability, performance etc.

Ques.2. Why is Testing required?
Ans. We need software testing for following reasons-
  • Testing provides an assurance to the stakeholders that product works as intended
  • Avoidable defects leaked to the end user/customer without proper testing adds bad reputation to the development company
  • Separate testing phase adds a confidence factor to the stakeholders regarding quality of the software developed
  • Defects detected earlier phase of SDLC results into lesser cost and resource utilisation of correction
  • Saves development time by detecting issues in earlier phase of development
  • Testing team adds another dimension to the software development by providing a different view point to the product development process.

Ques.3. When should we stop testing?
Ans. Testing can be stopped based on the following conditions -
  1. On completion of all the scripted test cases.
  2. Once the testing deadline is met.
  3. When the code coverage reaches a certain threshold.

Ques.4. What is Quality Assurance?
Quality assurance is a process driven approach which checks if the process of developing the product is correct and conforming to all the standards.

Ques.5. What is Quality Control?
Ans. Quality control is product driven approach which checks that the developed product conforms to all the specified requirements.

Ques.6. What is validation?
Ans. Validation is the process of validating that the developed software product conforms to the specified business requirements. It involves dynamic testing of software product by running it.

Ques.7. What is verification?
Ans. Verification is the process of evaluating the artifacts of software development in order to ensure that the product being developed will comply to the standards. It is static process of analysing the documents and not the actual end product.

Ques.8. What is SDLC?
Ans. Software Development Life Cycle refers to all the activities that are performed during software development including- requirement analysis, designing, implementation, testing, deployment and maintenance phases.
Ques.9. Explain STLC - Software Testing life cycle.
Software testing life cycle refers to all the activities performed during testing of a software product. The phases include-
  • Requirement analyses and validation - In this phase the requirements documents are analysed and validated and scope of testing is defined.
  • Test planning - In this phase test plan strategy is defined, estimation of test effort is defined along with automation strategy and tool selection is done.
  • Test Design and analysis - In this phase test cases are designed, test data is prepared and automation scripts are implemented.
  • Test environment setup - A test environment closely simulating the real world environment is prepared.
  • Test execution - The test cases are prepared, bugs are reported and retested once resolved.
  • Test closure and reporting - A test closure report is prepared having the final test results summary, learnings and test metrics.

Ques.10. What are the different types of testing?
Testing can broadly be defined into two types-
  • Functional testing - In functional testing, the system is tested for validity of the functional specification or it involves validating the functionality of the system
  • Non Functional testing - Non functional testing includes testing the non-functional requirements of the system like performance, security, scalability, portability, endurance etc.
Going by the way the testing is done, it can be categorized as-
  • Black box testing - In black box testing, the tester need not have any knowledge of the internal architecture or implementation of the system. The tester interact with the system through the interface providing input and validating the received output.
  • White box testing - In white box testing the tester analyses the internal architecture of the system as well as the quality of source code on different parameters like code optimization, code coverage, code reusability etc.
  • Gray box testing - In gray box testing, the tester has partial access to the internal architecture of the system e.g. the tester may have access to the design documents or database structure. This information helps tester to test the application better.

Ques.11. What is a bug?
Ans. A bug is a fault in a software product detected at the time of testing, causing it to function in an unanticipated manner.

Ques.12. What is a defect?
Ans, A defect is non-conformance with the requirement of the product detected in production by the end user.

Ques.13. What is alpha testing?
Ans. Alpha testing is the testing done by a group of potential end users or some independent test team at the developer site.

Ques.14. What is defect density?
Ans. Defect density is the measure of density of the defects in the system. It can be calculated by dividing number of defect identified by the total number of line of code(or methods or classes) in the application or program.

Ques.15. What is defect priority?
Ans. A defect priority is the urgency of the fixing the defect. Normally the defect priority is set on a scale of P0 to P3 with P0 defect having the most urgency to fix.

Ques.16. What is defect severity?
Ans. Defect severity is the severity of the defect impacting the functionality. Based on the organisation we can different levels of defect severity ranging from minor to scritical or show stopper.

Ques.17. Give an example of Low priority-Low severity, Low priority-High severity, High priority-Low severity, High priority-High severity defects.
  1. Low priority-Low severity - A spelling mistake in a page not frequently navigated by users.
  2. Low priority-High severity - Application crashing in some very corner case.
  3. High priority-Low severity - Slight change in logo color or spelling mistake in company name.
  4. High priority-High severity - Issue with login functionality.

Ques.18. What is a blocker?
Ans. A blocker is a bug of high priority and high severity. It prevents or blocks testing of some other major portion of the application as well.

Ques.19. What is a critical bug?
Ans. A criticla bug is a bug that impacts a major functionality of the application and the application cannot be delivered without fixing the bug. It is different from blocker bug as it doesn't affect or blocks the testing of other part of the application.

Ques.20. What is a test plan?
Ans. A test plan is a formal document describing the scope of testing, the approach to be used, resources required and time estimate of carrying out the testing process.

Ques.21. What is a test scenario?
Ans. A test scenario is a high level documentation for a use case. A single test scenario can cater multiple test cases.

Ques.22. What is a test case?
Ans. A test case is set of conditions with given pre-requisites, input values and expected results in a documented form which covers a particular test scenario.

Ques.23. What are some attributes of a Test case?
Ans. A test case can have following attributes-
  1. TestCaseId - A unique identifier of the test case.
  2. Test Summary - Oneliner summary of the test case.
  3. Description - Detailed description of the test case.
  4. Prerequisite or pre-condition - A set of prerequisites that must be followed before executing the test steps.
  5. Test Steps - Detailed steps for performing the test case.
  6. Expected result - The expected result in order to pass the test.
  7. Actual result - The actual result after executing the test steps.
  8. Test Result - Pass/Fail status of the test execution.
  9. Automation Status - Identifier of automation - whether the application is automated or not.
  10. Date - The test execution date.
  11. Executed by - Name of the person executing the test case.

Ques.24. What are some Defect Reporting attributes?
Ans. Some of the attributes of a Defect resport are-
  1. Defect Summary
  2. Defect Description
  3. Steps to reproduce
  4. Expected Result
  5. Actual Result
  6. Defect Severity
Ques.25. What is a test script?
Ans. A test script is an automated test case written in any programming langauge.
Ques.26. Explain bug lifecycle or the different states of a bug.
Ans. A bug goes through the following phases in software development-
  • New - A bug or defect when detected is in New state
  • Assigned - The newly detected bug when assigned to the corresponding developer is in Assigned state
  • Open - When the developer works on the bug, the bug lies in Open state
  • Rejected/Not a bug - A bug lies in rejected state in case the developer feels the bug is not genuine
  • Deferred - A deferred bug is one, fix of which is deferred for some time(for the next releases) based on urgency and criticality of the bug
  • Fixed - When a bug is resolved by the developer it is marked as fixed
  • Test - When fixed the bug is assigned to the tester and during this time the bug is marked as in Test
  • Reopened - If the tester is not satisfied with issue resolution the bug is moved to Reopened state
  • Verified - After the Test phase if the tester feels bug is resolved, it is marked as verified
  • Closed - After the bug is verified, it is moved to Closed status.

Ques.27. What are the different test design techniques?
Ans. Test design techniques are different standards of test designing which allow systematic and widely accepted test cases. The different test design techniques can be categorized as static test design technique and dynamic test design technique.
  1. Static Test Design Techniques - The test design techniques which involves testing without executing the code. The various static test design techniques can be further divided into two parts manual and using tool-
    • Manual static design techniques-
      • Walk through
      • Informal reviews
      • Technical reviews
      • Audit
      • Inspection
      • Management review
    • Static design techniques using tool-
      • Static analysis
      • Control flow analysis
      • Data flow analysis
  2. Dynamic Test Design Techniques - Dynamic test design techniques involves testing by running the system under test.
    • Specification based
    • Structure based
    • Experienced based

Ques.28. What is specification based test design technique?
Ans. Specification based test design techniques are also referred to as blackbox testing. It involves testing based on the specification of the system under test without knowing its internal architecture. The different types of specification based test design or black box testing techniques are-
  • Equivalence partitioning - Logical grouping of input data to the application.
  • Boundary value analysis - Boundary values of the equivalence partitioning classes are taken as input.
  • Decision tables - Testing using decision tables showing application's behaviour based on different combination of input values.
  • Cause-effect graph - Testing using graphical representation of input i.e. cause and output i.e. effect is used for test designing.
  • State transition testing - Testing based on state machine model.
  • Use case testing - Testing carried out using use cases.

Ques.29. Explain equivalence class partitioning.
Ans. Equivalence class partitioning is a specification based black box testing techniques. In equivalence class partitioning, set of input data that defines different test conditions are partitioned into logically similar groups such that using even a single test data from the group for testing can be considered as similar to using all the other data in that group. E.g. for testing a Square program(program that prints the square of a number- the equivalence classes can be-
Set of Negative numbers, whole numbers, decimal numbers, set of large numbers etc.

Ques.30. What is boundary value analysis?
Ans. Boundary value analysis is a software testing technique for designing test cases wherein the boundary values of the classes of the equivalence class partitioning are taken as input to the test cases e.g. if the test data lies in the range of 0-100, the boundary value analysis will include test data - 0,1, 99, 100.

Ques.31. What is decision table testing?
Ans. Decision table testing is a type of specification based test design technique or black box testing technique in which testing is carried out using decision tables showing application's behaviour based on different combination of input values. Decision tables are particularly helpful in designing test cases for complex business scenarios involving verification of application with multiple combinations of input.

Ques.32. What is a cause effect graph?
Ans. A cause effect graph testing is black box test design technique in which graphical representation of input i.e. cause and output i.e. effect is used for test designing. This technique uses different notations representing AND, OR, NOT etc relations between the input conditions leading to output.

Ques.33. What is state transition testing?
Ans. State transition testing is a black box test design technique based on state machine model. State transition testing is based on the concept that a system can be defined as a collection of multiple states and the transition from one state to other happens because of some event.

Ques.34. What is use case testing?
Ans. A use case testing is a black box testing approach in which testing is carried out using use cases. A use case scenario is seen as interaction between the application and actors(users). These use cases are used for depicting requirements and hence can also serve as basis for acceptance testing.

Ques.35. What is structure based testing?
Ans. Structure based test design techniques are also referred to as white box testing. In this techniques the knowledge of code or internal architecture of the system is required to carry out the testing. The various kinds of testing structure based or white testing techniques are-
  • Statement testing - Test scripts are designed to execute code statements and coverage is the measure of line of code or statements executed by test scripts.
  • Decision testing/branch testing - Measure of the percentage of decision points(e.g. if-else conditions) executed out of the total decision points in the application.
  • Condition testing- Testing the condition outcomes(TRUE or FALSE). So, getting 100% condition coverage required exercising each condition for both TRUE and FALSE results using test scripts(For n conditions we will have 2n test scripts).
  • Multiple condition testing - Testing the different combinations of condition outcomes. Hence for 100% coverage we will have 2^n test scripts. This is very exhaustive and very difficult to achieve 100% coverage.
  • Condition determination testing - It is an optimized way of multiple condition testing in which the combinations which doesn't affect the outcomes are discarded.
  • Path testing - Testing the independent paths in the system(paths are executable statements from entry to exit points).

Ques.36. What is Statement testing and statement coverage in white box testing?
Ans. Statement testing is a white box testing approach in which test scripts are designed to execute code statements.
Statement coverage is the measure of the percentage of statements of code executed by the test scripts out of the total code statements in the application. The statement coverage is the least preferred metric for checking test coverage.

Ques.37. What is decision testing or branch testing?
Ans. Decision testing or branch testing is a white box testing approach in which test coverage is measured by the percentage of decision points(e.g. if-else conditions) executed out of the total decision points in the application.

Ques.38. What are the different levels of the testing?
Ans. Testing can be performed at different levels during the development process. Performing testing activities at multiple levels help in early identification of bugs. The different levels of testing are -
  1. Unit Testing
  2. Integration Testing
  3. System Testing
  4. Acceptance Testing

Ques.39. What is unit testing?
Ans. Unit testing is the first level of testing and it involves testing of individual modules of the software. It is usually performed by developers.

Ques.40. What is integration testing?
Ans. Integration testing is performed after unit testing. In integration testing we test the group of related modules. I aims at finding interfacing issues between the modules.

Ques.41. What are the different types of integration testing?
Ans. The different type of integration testing are-
  1. Big bang Integration Testing - In big bang integration testing, testing starts only after all the modules are integrated.
  2. Top-down Integration Testing - In top down integration, testing/integration starts from top modules to lower level modules.
  3. Bottom-up Integration Testing - In bottom up integration, testing starts from lower level modules to higher level module up in the heirarchy.
  4. Hybrid Integration Testing - Hybrid integration testing is the combination of both Top-down and bottom up integration testing. In this approach the integration starts from middle layer and testing is carried out in both the direction

Ques.42. What is stub?
Ans. In case of Top-down integration many a times lower level modules are not developed while beginning testing/integration with top level modules. In those cases Stubs or dummy modules are used that simulate the working of modules by providing hardcoded or expected output based on the input values.

Ques.43. What is driver?
Ans. In case of Bottom up integration drivers are used to simulate the working of top level modules in order to test the related modules lower in the heirarchy.

Ques.44. What is a test harness? Why do we need a test harness?
Ans. A test harness is a collection of test scripts and test data usually associated with unit and integration testing. It involves stubs and drivers that are required for testing software modules and integrated components.

Ques.45. What is system testing?
Ans. System testing is the level of testing where the complete software is tested as a whole. The conformance of the application with its business requirements is checked in system testing.

Ques.46. What is acceptance testing?
Ans. Acceptance testing is a testing performed by the potential end user or customers to check if the software conforms to the business requirements and can be accepted for use.

Ques.47. What is alpha testing?
Ans. Alpha testing is a type of acceptance testing that is performed end users at the developer site.

Ques.48. What is beta testing?
Ans. Beta testing is the testing done by end users at end user's site. It allows users to provide direct input about the software to the development company.

Ques.49. What is adhoc testing?
Ans. Adhoc testing is an unstructured way of testing that is performed without any formal documentation or proper planning.

Ques.50. What is monkey testing?
Ans. Monkey testing is a type of testing that is performed randomly without any predefined test cases or test inputs.

Ques.51. How is monkey testing different from adhoc testing?
Ans. In case of adhoc testing although there are no predefined or documented test cases still testers have the understanding of the application. While in case of monkey testing testers doesn't have any understanding of the application.

Ques.52. What is exploratory testing?
Ans. Exploratory testing is a type of testing in which new test case are added and updated while exploring the system or executing test cases. Unlike scripted testing, test design and execution goes parallely in exploratory testing.

Ques.53. What is performance testing?
Ans. Performance testing is a type of non-functional testing in which the performance of the system is evaluated under expected or higher load. The various performance parameters evaluated during performance testing are - response time, reliability, resource usage, scalabilty etc.

Ques.54. What is load testing?
Ans. Load testing is a type of performance testing which aims at finding application's performance under expected workload. During load testing we evaluate the response time, throughput, error rate etc parameters of the application.

Ques.55. What is stress testing?
Ans. Stress testing is a type of performance testing in which application's behaviuor is monitored under higher workload tehn expected. Stress testing is done to find memory leaks, robustness of the application as it is subjected to high workload.

Ques.56. What is volume testing?
Ans. Volume testing is a type of performance testing in which the performance of application is evaluated with large amount of data. It checks the scalability of the application and helps in identification of bottleneck with high volume of data.

Ques.57. What is endurance testing or Soak testing?
Ans. Endurance testing is a type of performance testing which aims at finding issues like memory leaks when an application is subjected to load test for a long period of time.

Ques.58. What is spike testing?
Ans. Endurance testing is a type of performance testing in which the application's performance is measured while suddenly increasing the number of active users during the load test.

Ques.59. What is usability testing?
Ans. Usability testing is the type of testing that aims at determining the extent to which the application is easy to understand and use.

Ques.60. What is Accessibility testing?
Ans. Accessibility is the type of testing which aims at determining the ease of use or operation of the application specifically by with disabilities.

Ques.61. What is compatibity testing?
Ans. Testing software to see how compatible the software is with a particular environment - Operating system, platform or hardware.

Ques.62. What is configuration testing?
Ans. Configuration testing is the type of testing used to evaluate the configurational requirements of the software along with effect of changing the required configuration.

Ques.63. What is localisation testing?
Ans. Localisation testing is a type of testing in which we evaluate the application's customization(localized version of application) to a particular culture or locale. Generally the content of the application is checked for updation(e.g. content language).

Ques.64. What is globalisation testing?
Ans. Globalisation testing is a type of testing in which application is evaluated for its functioning across the world.

Ques.65. What is negative testing?
Ans. Negative testing is a type of testing in which the application's robustness(graceful exiting or error reporting) is evaluated when provided with invalid input or test data.

Ques.66. What is security testing?
Ans. Security testing is a type of testing which aims at evaluating the integrity, authentication, authorization, availabilty, confidentiality and non-repudation of the application under test.

Ques.67. What is penetration testing?
Ans. Penetration testing or pen testing is a type of security testing in which application is evaluated(safely exploited) for different kinds of vulnerabilities that any hacker could expolit.

Ques.68. What is robustness testing?
Ans. Robustness testing is a type of testing that is performed to find the robustness of the application i.e. the ability of the system to behave gracefully in case of erroneous test steps and test input.

Ques.69. What is A/B testing?
A/B testing is a type of testing in which the two variants of the software product are exposed to the end users and on analysing the user behaviour on each variant the better variant is chosen and used thereafter.

Ques.70. What is concurrency testing?
Ans. Concurrency testing is a multi-user testing in which an application is evaluated by analyzing application's behaviour with concurent users acccessing the same functioanity.

Ques.71. What is all pair testing?
Ans. All pair testing is a type of testing in which the application is tested with all possible combination of the values of input parameters.

Ques.72. What is failover testing?
Ans. Failover testing is a type of testing that is used to verify application's ability to allocate more resources(more servers) in case of failure and transfering of the processing part to back-up system.

Ques.73. What is fuzz testing?
Ans. Fuzz testing is a type of testing in which large amount of random data is provided as input to the application in order to find security loopholes and other issues in the application.

Ques.74. What is UI testing?
Ans. UI or user interface testing is a type of testing that aims at finding Graphical User Interface defects in the application and checks that the GUI conforms to the specifications.

Ques.75. What is risk analysis?
Ans. Risk analysis is the analysis of the risk identified and assigning an appropriate risk level to it based on the impact of the risk over the application.

Ques.76. What is the difference between regression and retesting?
Ans. Regression testing is testing the application to verify that a new code change doesn't affect the other parts of the application. Whereas, in retesting we verify if the fixed issue is resolved or not.

Ques.77. What is the difference between blackbox and whitebox testing?
Ans. Blackbox testing is a type of testing in which internal architecture of the code is not required for testing. It is usaually applicable for system and acceptance testing.
Whereas whitebox testing requires internal design and implementation knowledege of the application being tested. It is usually applicable for Unit and Integration testing.

Ques.78. What is the difference between smoke and sanity testing?
Ans. The difference between smoke and sanity testing is-
  • Smoke testing is a type of testing in which the all major functionalities of the application are tested before carrying out exhaustive testing. Whereas sanity testing is subset of regression testing which is carried out when there is some minor fix in application in a new build.
  • In smoke testing shallow-wide testing is carried out while in sanity narrow-deep testing (for a particular fucntionality) is done.
  • The smoke tests are usually documented or are automated. Whereas the sanity tests are generally not documented or unscripted.

Ques.79. What is code coverage?
Ans. Code coverage is the measure of the amount of code covered by the test scripts. It gives the idea of the part of the application covered by the test suite.

Ques.80. What is cyclomatic complexity?
Ans. Cyclomatic complexity is the measure of the number of independent paths in an application or program. This metric provides an indication of the amount of effort required to test complete functionality. It can be defined by the expression -
L – N + 2P, where:
L is the number of edges in the graph
N is the number of node
P is the number of disconnected parts

Ques.81. What is dynamic testing?
Ans. Testing performed by executing or running the application under test either manually or using automation.

Ques.82. What is an exit criteria?
Ans. An exit criteria is a formal set of conditions that specify the agreed upon features or state of application in order to mark the completion of the process or product.

Ques.83. What is traceability matrix?
Ans. In software testing a traceability matrix is a table that relates the high level requirements with detailed requirements, test plans or test cases in order to determine the completeness of the relationship.

Ques.84. What is pilot testing?
Ans. Pilot testing is a testing carried out as a trial by limited number of users evaluate the system and provide their feedback before the complete deployment is carried out.

Ques.85. What is backend testing?
Ans. Backend testing is a type of testing that invloves testing the backend of the system which comprises of testing the databases and the APIs in the application.

Ques.86. What are some advantages of automation testing?
Ans. Some advantages of automation testing are-
  1. Test execution using automation is fast and saves considerable amount of time.
  2. Carefully written test scripts remove the chance of human error during testing.
  3. Tests execution can be scheduled for nightly run using CI tools like Jenkins which can also be configured to provide daily test results to relevant stakeholders.
  4. Automation testing is very less resource intensive. Once the tests are automated, test execution requires almost no time of QAs. Saving Qa bandwidth for other explratory tasks.

Ques.87. What are some disadvantages of automation testing?
Ans. Some advantages of automation testing are-
  1. It requries skilled automation testing experts to write test scritps.
  2. Additional effort to write scripts is required upfront.
  3. Automation scripts are limited to verification of the tests that are coded. These tests may miss some error that is very glaring and easily identifiable to human(manual QA).
  4. Even with some minor change in application, script updation and maintenance is required.

Ques.88. What is mutation testing?
Ans. Mutation testing is a type of white box testing in which the source code of the application is mutated to cause some defect in its working. After that the test scripts are executed to check for their correctness by verifying the failures caused the mutant code.

Ques.89. Write test cases for Pen.
  1. Verify the type of pen- whether it is ball point pen, ink pen or gel pen
  2. Verify the outer body of the pen- whether it should be metallic, plastic or any other material as per the specification
  3. Verify that length, breadth and other size specifications of the pen
  4. Verify the weight of the pen
  5. Verify if the pen is with cap or without cap
  6. Verify if the pen has rubber grip or not
  7. Verify the color of the ink of the pen
  8. Verify the odour of the pen
  9. Verify the size of the tip of the pen
  10. Verify the company name or logo of the maker is correct and at desired place
  11. Verify if the pen is smooth
  12. Verify if the pen's ink gets leaked in case it is tilted upside down
  13. Verify if the pen's gets leaked at higher altitude
  14. Verify the type of surfaces the pen can write at
  15. Verify if the text written by pen is erasable or not
  16. Verify pen's and its ink condition at extreme temperature is as per the specification
  17. Verify the pressure upto which the pen's tip can resist and work correctly
  18. Verify the pen is breakable or not at a certain height as the specification
  19. Verify text written by pen doesn't get faded before a certain time as per the specification
  20. Verify the effect of water, oil and other liquid on the text written by pen
  21. Verify the condition of ink after long period of time is as per permissible specification or not
  22. Verify the total amount of text that can be written by the pen at one go
  23. Verify the pen's ink is waterproof or not
  24. Verify if the pen is able to write when used against the gravity- upside down
  25. Verify that in case of ink pen, the pen's ink can be refilled again.

Ques.90. Write test cases for ATM Machine.
  1. Verify the slot for ATM Card insertion is as per the specification
  2. Verify that user is presented with options when card is inserted from proper side
  3. Verify that no option to continue and enter credentials is displayed to user when card is inserted correctly
  4. Verify that font of the text displayed in ATM screen is as per the specifications
  5. Verify that touch of the ATM screen is smooth and operational
  6. Verify that user is presented with option to choose language for further operations
  7. Verify that user asked to enter pin number before displaying any card/bank account detail
  8. Verify that there are limited number of attempts upto which user is allowed to enter pin code
  9. Verify that if total number of incorrect pin attempts gets surpassed then user is not allowed to continue further- operations like blocking of card etc gets initiated
  10. Verify that pin is encrypted and when entered
  11. Verify that user is presented with different account type options like- saving, current etc
  12. Verify that user is allowed to get account details like available balance
  13. Verify that user same amount of money gets dispatched as entered by user for cash withdrawal
  14. Verify that user is only allowed to enter amount in multiples of denominations as per the specifications
  15. Verify that user is prompted to enter the amount again in case amount entered is not as per the specification and proper message should be displayed for the same
  16. Verify that user cannot fetch more amount than the total available balance
  17. Verify that user is provided the option to print the transaction/enquiry
  18. Verify that user user's session timeout is maintained and is as per the specifications
  19. Verify that user is not allowed to exceed one transaction limit amount
  20. Verify that user is not allowed to exceed one day transaction limit amount
  21. Verify that user is allowed to do only one transaction per pin request
  22. Verify that user is not allowed to proceed with expired ATM card
  23. Verify that in case ATM machine runs out of money, proper message is displayed to user
  24. Verify that in case sudden electricity loss in between the operation, the transaction is marked as null and amount is not withdrawn from user's account.

Ques.91. Write test cases for Login.
  1. Verify that the login screen is having option to enter username and password with submit button and option of forgot password
  2. Verify that user is able to login with valid username and password
  3. Verify that user is not able to login with invalid username and password
  4. Verify that validation message gets displayed in case user leaves username or password field as blank
  5. Verify that validation message is displayed in case user exceeds the character limit of the user name and password fields
  6. Verify that there is reset button to clear the field's text
  7. Verify if there is checkbox with label "remember password" in the login page
  8. Verify that the password is in encrypted form when entered
  9. Verify that there is limit on the total number of unsuccessful attempts
  10. For security point of view, in case of in correct credentials user is displayed the message like "incorrect username or password" instead of exact message pointing at the field that is incorrect. As message like "incorrect username" will aid hacker in bruteforcing the fields one by one
  11. Verify the timeout of the login session
  12. Verify if the password can be copy-pasted or not
  13. Verify that once logged in, clicking back button doesn't logout user
  14. Verify if SQL Injection attacks works on login page
  15. Verify if XSS vulnerability work on login page

Ques.92. Write test cases for Lift.
  1. Verify the dimensions of the lift
  2. Verify the type of door of the lift is as per the specification
  3. Verify the type of metal used in the lift interior and exterior
  4. Verify the capacity of the lift in terms of total weight
  5. Verify the buttons in the lift to close and open the door and numbers as per the number of floors
  6. Verify that lift moves to the particular floor as the button of the floor is clicked
  7. Verify that lift stops when up/down buttons at particular floor are pressed
  8. Verify if there is any emergency button to contact officials in case of any mishap
  9. Verify the performance of the floor - time taken to go to a floor
  10. Verify that in case of power failure, lift doesn't free-fall and get halted in the particular floor
  11. Verify lifts working in case button to open the door is pressed before reaching the destination floor
  12. Verify that in case door is about to close and an object is placed between the doors, if the doors senses the object and again open or not
  13. Verify the time duration for which door remain open by default
  14. Verify if lift interior is having proper air ventilation
  15. Verify lighting in the lift
  16. Verify that at no point lifts door should open while in motion
  17. Verify that in case of power loss, there should be a backup mechanism to safely get into a floor or a backup power supply
  18. Verify that in case multiple floor number button are clicked, lift should stop at each floor
  19. Verify that in case capacity limit is reached users are prompted with warning alert- audio/visual
  20. Verify that inside lift users are prompted with current floor and direction information the lift is moving towards- audio/visual prompt

Ques.93. Write test cases for Lift.
General Test Cases
  1. Verify that user is able to navigate through all the products across different categories
  2. Verify that all the links and banners are redirecting to correct product/category pages and none of the links arr broken
  3. Verify that the company logo is clearly visible
  4. Verify that all the text - product, category name, price and product description are clearly visible
  5. Verify that all the images - product and banner are clearly visible
  6. Verify that category pages have relevant product listed specific to the category
  7. Verify that correct count of total products are listed on the category pages
  8. Search - Verify that on searching all the product satisfying the search criteria are visble on the search result page
  9. Search - Verify the more relevant product for the search term are displayed on the top for a particular search term
  10. Search - Verify that count of products is correctly displayed on the search result page for a particular search term
  11. Filtering - Verify that filtering functionality correctly filters product based on the filter applied
  12. Filtering - Verify that filtering works correctly on category pages
  13. Filtering - Verify that filtering works correctly on the search result page
  14. Filtering - Verify that correct count of total products is displayed after a filter is applied
  15. Sorting - Verify that all the sort options work correctly - correctly sort the products based on the sort option chosen
  16. Sorting - Verify that sorting works correctly on the category pages
  17. Sorting - Verify that sorting works correctly on the search result page
  18. Sorting - Verify that sorting works correctly on the pages containing filtered result, after applying filters
  19. Sorting - Verify that product count remains intact irrespective of sorting option applied

Product Buy Flow - Test cases

  1. Verify that on the product page, user can select the desired attribute of the product e.g. size, color etc
  2. Verify that user can add to cart one or more products
  3. Verify that user can add products to wishlist
  4. Verify that user can buy products added to cart after signing in to the application (or as per the functionality of the website)
  5. Verify that user can successfully buy more than one products that were added to his/her cart
  6. Verify that user cannot add more than available inventory of the product
  7. Verify that the limit to the number of products a user can by is working correctly by displaying error message and preventing user from buying more than the limit
  8. Verify that the delivery can be declined of for the places where shipping is not available
  9. Verify that Cash on Delivery option of payment is working fine
  10. Verify that the different pre-paid methods of payments are working fine
  11. Verify that product return functionality works fine

User(Buyer) Registration - Test cases

  1. Verify that all the specified fields are present on the registration page
  2. Verify that the required/mandatory fields are marked with * against the field
  3. Verify that for better user interface dropdowns, radio buttons and checkboxes etc fields are displayed wherever possible instead of just textboxes
  4. Verify the page has both submit and cancel/reset buttons at the end
  5. Verify that clicking submit button after entering all the required fields, submits the data to the server
  6. Verify that clicking cancel/reset button after entering all the required fields, cancels the submit request and resets all the fields
  7. Verify that whenever possible validation should take place at client side
  8. Verify that not filling the mandatory fields and clicking submit button will lead to validation error
  9. Verify that not filling the optional fields and clicking submit button will still send data to server without any validation error
  10. Check the upper limit of the textboxes
  11. Check validation on date and email fields (only valid dates and valid email Ids should be allowed
  12. Check validation on numeric fields by entering alphabets and special characters
  13. Verify that leading and trailing spaces are trimmed
  14. Verify that entering blank spaces on mandatory fields lead to validation error
  15. Verify that after making a request to the server and then sending the same request again with the same unique key will lead to server side validation error

Seller - Product creation Test cases

  1. Verify that authenticated sellers get access to product creation panel specific to the authorised categories
  2. Verify that product creation panel is working fine for single product creation
  3. Verify that product creation panel is working fine for multiple product creation
  4. Verify that maximum product creation limit for seller is working fine, limiting seller to create more than the desired number of products
  5. Verify panel validation for checking mandatory fields
  6. Verify that duplicate product creation is restricted through panel
  7. Verify that seller can update information and price of existing products
  8. Verify that product created by seller get visible on the website after certain period of time
  9. Verify that updation made by seller get visible on the website after certain period of time

Ques.94. What should be the psychology testing?
The two main stakeholders in software development life cycle - Testers and Developers have different mindsets while approaching an application. Testers tend to have a more stringent approach of examining the software. Most of the time they are looking to "break the application". Whereas, developers have the mindset to "make the application work".
ISTQB has defined certain psychological factors that influence the success of testing-
  • Independence - Testers should enjoy a certain degree of independence while testing the application rather than following a straight path. This can be achieved by different apporaches like off-shoring the QA process, getting test strategies and other test plans by someone not following any sort of bias.
  • Testing is often looked upon as destructive activity as it aims at finding flaws in system. But QA personnel should present testing as required and integral part, presenting it as constructive activity in overall sofware development lifecycle by mitigating the risks at early stages.
  • More often than not, tester and developers are at the opposite end of spectrum. Testers need to have good interpersonal skills to communicate their findings without induging in any sort of tussle with the developers.
  • All the communication and discussions should be focussed on facts and figures(risk analysis, priority setting etc). Emphasizing that the collaborative work of developers and testers will lead to better software.
  • Empathy is one characterstic that definitely helps in testing. Testers empathizing with developers and other project stakeholders will lead to better relation between the two. Also, empathizing with end users will lead to a software with better usability of the product.

Ques.95. What is the difference between Testing and debugging?
Ans. Testing is the primarily performed by testing team in order to find the defects in the system. Whereas, debugging is an activity performed by development team. In debugging the cause of defect is located and fixed. Thus removing the defect and preventing any future occurrence of the defect as well.
Other difference between the two is - testing can be done without any internal knowledge of software architecture. Whereas debugging requires knowledge of the software architecture and coding.

Ques.96. Explain Agile methodology?
Ans. Agile methodology of software development is based on interative and increamental approach. In this model the application is broken down into smaller build on which different cross functional team work together providing rapid delivery along with adapting to changing needs at the same time.

Ques.97. What is scrum?
Ans. A scrum is a process for implementing Agile methodology. In scrum, time is divided into sprints and on completion of sprints, a deliverable is shipped.

Ques.98. What are the different roles in scrum?
Ans. The different roles in scrum are -
  1. Product Owner - The product owner owns the whole development of the product, assign tasks to the team and act as an interface between the scrum team(development team) and the stakeholders.
  2. Scrum Master - The scrum master monitors that scrum rules get followed in the team and conducts scrum meeting.
  3. Scrum Team - A scrum team participate in the scrum meetings and perform the tasks assigned.

Ques.99. What is a scrum meeting?
Ans. A scrum meeting is daily held meeting in scrum process. This meeting is conducted by scrum master and update of previous day's work along with next day's task and context is defined in scrum.

Ques.100. Explain TDD (Test Driven Development).
Ans. Test Driven Development is a software development methodology in which the development of the software is driven by test cases created for the functionality to be implemented. In TDD first the test cases are created and then code to pass the tests is written. Later the code is refactored as per the standards.

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